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QGIS Planet

The road to QGIS 3.0 – part 1

qgis_icon.svgAs we discussed in QGIS 3 is under way, the QGIS project is working toward the next major version of the application and these developments have major impact on any custom scripts or plugins you’ve developed for QGIS.

We’re now just over a week into this work, and already there’s been tons of API breaking changes landing the code base. In this post we’ll explore some of these changes, what’s motivated them, and what they mean for your scripts.

The best source for keeping track of these breaking changes is to watch the API break documentation on GitHub. This file is updated whenever a change lands which potentially breaks plugins/scripts, and will eventually become a low-level guide to porting plugins to QGIS 3.0.

API clean-ups

So far, lots of the changes which have landed have related to cleaning up the existing API. These include:

Removal of deprecated API calls

The API has been frozen since QGIS 2.0 was released in 2013, and in the years since then many things have changed. As a result, different parts of the API were deprecated along the way as newer, better ways of doing things were introduced. The deprecated code was left intact so that QGIS 2.x plugins would still all function correctly. By removing these older, deprecated code paths it enables the QGIS developers to streamline the code, remove hacky workarounds, untested methods, and just generally “clean things up”. As an example, the older labelling system which pre-dates QGIS 2.0 (it had no collision detection, no curved labels, no fancy data defined properties or rule based labelling!) was still floating around just in case someone tried to open a QGIS 1.8 project. That’s all gone now, culling over 5000 lines of outdated, unmaintained code. Chances are this won’t affect your plugins in the slightest. Other removals, like the removal of QgsMapRenderer (the renderer used before multi-threaded rendering was introduced) likely have a much larger impact, as many scripts and plugins were still using QgsMapRenderer classes and calls. These all need to be migrated to the new QgsMapRendererJob and QgsMapSettings classes.

Renaming things for consistency

Consistent naming helps keep the API predictable and more user friendly. Lots of changes have landed so far to make the naming of classes and methods more consistent. These include things like:

  • Making sure names use consistent capitalization. Eg, there was previously methods named “writeXML” and “writeXml”. These have all been renamed to consistently use camel case, including for acronyms. (In case you’re wondering – this convention is used to follow the Qt library conventions).
  • Consistent use of terms. The API previously used a mix of “CRS” and “SRS” for similar purposes – it now consistently uses “CRS” for a coordinate reference system.
  • Removal of abbreviations. Lots of abbreviated words have been removed from the names, eg “destCrs” has become “destinationCrs”. The API wasn’t consistently using the same abbreviations (ie “dest”/”dst”/”destination”), so it was decided to remove all use of abbreviated words and replace them with the full word. This helps keep things predictable, and is also a bit friendlier for non-native English speakers.

The naming changes all need to be addressed to make existing scripts and plugins compatible with QGIS 3.0. It’s potentially quite a lot of work for plugin developers, but in the long term it will make the API easier to use.

Changes to return and argument types

There’s also been lots of changes relating to the types of objects returned by functions, or the types of objects used as function arguments. Most of these involve changing the c++ types from pointers to references, or from references to copies. These changes are being made to strengthen the API and avoid potential crashes. In most cases they don’t have any affect on PyQGIS code, with some exceptions:

  • Don’t pass Python “None” objects as QgsCoordinateReferenceSystems or as QgsCoordinateTransforms. In QGIS 3.0 you must pass invalid QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem objects (“QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem()”) or invalid QgsCoordinateTransform (“QgsCoordinateTransform()”) objects instead.

Transparent caching of CRS creation

The existing QgsCRSCache class has been removed. This class was used to cache the expensive results of initializing a QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem object, so that creating the same CRS could be done instantly and avoid slow databases lookups. In QGIS 3.0 this caching is now handled transparently, so there is no longer a need for the separate QgsCRSCache and it has been removed. If you were using QgsCRSCache in your PyQGIS code, it will need to be removed and replaced with the standard QgsCoordinateReferenceSystem constructors.

This change has the benefit that many existing plugins which were not explicitly using QgsCRSCache will now gain the benefits of the faster caching mechanism – potentially this could dramatically speed up existing plugin algorithms.

In summary

The QGIS developers have been busy fixing, improving and cleaning up the PyQGIS API. We recognise that these changes result in significant work for plugin and script developers, so we’re committed to providing quality documentation for how to adapt your code for these changes, and we will also investigate the use of automated tools to help ease your code transition to QGIS 3.0. We aren’t making changes lightly, but instead are carefully refining the API to make it more predictable, streamlined and stable.

If you’d like assistance with (or to outsource) the transition of your existing QGIS scripts and plugins to QGIS 3.0, just contact us at North Road to discuss. Every day we’re directly involved in the changes moving to QGIS 3.0, so we’re ideally placed to make this transition painless for you!

QGIS 3 is underway – what does it mean for your plugins and scripts?

With the imminent release of QGIS 2.16, the development attention has now shifted to the next scheduled release – QGIS 3.0! If you haven’t been following the discussion surrounding this I’m going to try and summarise what exactly 3.0 means and how it will impact any scripts or plugins you’ve developed for QGIS.

qgis_icon.svgQGIS 3.0 is the first major QGIS release since 2.0 was released way back in September 2013. Since that release so much has changed in QGIS… a quick glance over the release notes for 2.14 shows that even for this single point release there’s been hundreds of changes. Despite this, for all 2.x releases the PyQGIS API has remained stable, and a plugin or script which was developed for use in QGIS 2.0 will still work in QGIS 2.16.

Version 3.0 will introduce the first PyQGIS API break since 2013. An API break like this is required to move QGIS to newer libraries such as Qt 5 and Python 3, and allows the development team the flexibility to tackle long-standing issues and limitations which cannot be fixed using the 2.x API. Unfortunately, the side effect of this API break is that the scripts and plugins which you use in QGIS 2.x will no longer work when QGIS 3.0 is released!

Numerous API breaking changes have already started to flow into QGIS, and 2.16 isn’t even yet publicly available. The best way to track these changes is to keep an eye on the “API changes” documentation.  This document describes all the changes which are flowing in which affect PyQGIS code, and describe how best they should be addressed by plugin and script maintainers. Some changes are quite trivial and easy to update code for, others are more extreme (such as changes surrounding moving to PyQt5 and Python 3) and may require significant time to adapt for.

I’d encourage all plugin and script developers to keep watching the API break documentation, and subscribe to the developers list for additional information about required changes as they are introduced.

If you’re looking for assistance or to outsource adaptation of your plugins and scripts to QGIS 3.0 – the team at North Road are ideally placed to assist! Our team includes some of the most experienced QGIS developers who are directly involved with the development of QGIS 3.0, so you can be confident knowing that your code is in good hands. Just contact us to discuss your QGIS development requirements.

You can read more about QGIS 3.0 API changes in The road to QGIS 3.0 – part 1.

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