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Mon Aug 31 16:40:10 2015

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Using TimeManager for WMS-T layers

This is a guest post by Karolina Alexiou (aka carolinux), Anita’s collaborator on the Time Manager plugin.

As of version 2.1.5, TimeManager provides some support for stepping through WMS-T layers, a format about which Anita has written  in the past.  From the official definition, the OpenGIS® Web Map Service Interface Standard (WMS) provides a simple HTTP interface for requesting geo-registered map images from one or more distributed geospatial databases. A WMS request defines the geographic layer(s) and area of interest to be processed. The response to the request is one or more geo-registered map images (returned as JPEG, PNG, etc) that can be displayed in a browser application. QGIS can display those images as a raster layer. The WMS-T standard allows the user of the service to set a time boundary in addition to a geographical boundary with their HTTP request.

We are going to add the following url as the web map provider service: http://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/cgi-bin/wms/nexrad/n0r-t.cgi

From QGIS, go to Layer>Add Layer>Add WMS/WMST Layer and add a new server and connect to it. For the service we have chosen, we only need to specify a name and the url.

Select the top level layer, in our case named nexrad_base_reflect and click Add. Now you have added the layer to your QGIS project.

To add it to TimeManager as well, add it as a raster with the settings from the screenshot below. Start time and end time have the values 2005-08-29:03:10:00Z and 2005-08-30:03:10:00Z respectively, which is a period which overlaps with hurricane Katrina. Now, the WMS-T standard uses a handful of different time formats, and at this time, the plugin requires you to know this format and input the start and end values in this format. If there’s interest to sponsor this feature, in the future we may get the format directly from the web service description. The web service description is an XML document (see here for an example) which, among other information, contains a section that defines the format, default time and granularity of the time dimension.

add_raster

If we set the time step to 2 hours and click play, we will see that TimeManager renders each interval by querying the web map service for it, as you can see in this short video.

Querying the web service and waiting for the response takes some time. So, the plugin requires some patience for looking at this particular layer format in interactive mode. If we export the frames, however, we can get a nice result. This is an animation showing hurricane Katrina progressing over a 30 minute interval.

whoosh

If you want to sponsor further development of the Time Manager plugin, you can arrange a session with me – Karolina Alexiou – via Codementor.


QGIS on the rise with journalists

If you are following QGIS on Twitter you’ve probably noticed the increasing number of tweets by journalists using QGIS.

For example this map in the Financial Times by Hannah Dormido

or this one with overview maps and three different levels of details

or this map with semi-transparent label backgrounds and nice flag images

or even Time Manager animations by raoulranoa in the Los Angeles Times

I think this is a great development and a sign of how wide-spread QGIS usage is today.

If you know of any other examples or if you are a journalist using QGIS yourself, I’d love to see more!


Video tutorial: animated heatmaps with QGIS

Do you like the QGIS heatmap functionality? Did you know that QGIS can also create animated heatmaps?

The following video tutorial shows all necessary steps. To reproduce it, you can get the sample data from my Time Manager workshop at #QGIS2015.


Time Manager workshop at #QGIS2015

Today was the final day of #QGIS2015 the first joint QGIS conference and developer meeting. I had the pleasure to meet Time Manager co-developer Karolina Alexiou aka carolinux in person and give a talk including a hands-on workshop on Time Manager together. Time Manager makes it possible to explore spatio-temporal data by creating animations directly in QGIS.

The talk presents QGIS visualization tools with a focus on efficient use of layer styling to both explore and present spatial data. Examples include the recently added heatmap style as well as sophisticated rule-based and data-defined styles. The focus of this presentation is exploring and presenting spatio-temporal data using the Time Manager plugin. A special treat are time-dependent styles using expression-based styling which access the current Time Manager timestamp.

To download the example data and QGIS projects download Time_Manager_Examples.zip.


Trajectory animations with fadeout effect

Today’s post is a short tutorial for creating trajectory animations with a fadeout effect using QGIS Time Manager. This is the result we are aiming for:

The animation shows the current movement in pink which fades out and leaves behind green traces of the trajectories.

About the data

GeoLife GPS Trajectories were collected within the (Microsoft Research Asia) Geolife project by 182 users in a period of over three years (from April 2007 to August 2012). [1,2,3] The GeoLife GPS Trajectories download contains many text files organized in multiple directories. The data files are basically CSVs with 6 lines of header information. They contain the following fields:

Field 1: Latitude in decimal degrees.
Field 2: Longitude in decimal degrees.
Field 3: All set to 0 for this dataset.
Field 4: Altitude in feet (-777 if not valid).
Field 5: Date – number of days (with fractional part) that have passed since 12/30/1899.
Field 6: Date as a string.
Field 7: Time as a string.

Data prep: PostGIS

Since any kind of GIS operation on text files will be quite inefficient, I decided to load the data into a PostGIS database. This table of millions of GPS points can then be sliced into appropriate chunks for exploration, for example, a day in Beijing:

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW geolife.beijing 
AS SELECT trajectories.id,
    trajectories.t_datetime,
    trajectories.t_datetime + interval '1 day' as t_to_datetime,
    trajectories.geom,
    trajectories.oid
   FROM geolife.trajectories
   WHERE st_dwithin(trajectories.geom,
           st_setsrid(
             st_makepoint(116.3974589, 
                           39.9388838), 
             4326), 
           0.1) 
   AND trajectories.t_datetime >= '2008-11-11 00:00:00'
   AND trajectories.t_datetime < '2008-11-12 00:00:00'
WITH DATA

Trajectory viz: a fadeout effect for point markers

The idea behind this visualization is to show both the current movement as well as the history of the trajectories. This can be achieved with a fadeout effect which leaves behind traces of past movement while the most recent positions are highlighted to stand out.

Map tiles by Stamen Design, under CC BY 3.0. Data by OpenStreetMap, under ODbL.

Map tiles by Stamen Design, under CC BY 3.0. Data by OpenStreetMap, under ODbL.

This effect can be created using a Single Symbol renderer with a marker symbol with two symbol layers: one layer serves as the highlights layer (pink) while the second layer represents the traces (green) which linger after the highlights disappear. Feature blending is used to achieve the desired effect for overlapping markers.

Screenshot 2015-05-06 23.52.40

The highlights layer has two expression-based properties: color and size. The color fades to white and the point size shrinks as the point ages. The age can be computed by comparing the point’s t_datetime timestamp to the Time Manager animation time $animation_datetime.

This expression creates the color fading effect:

color_hsv(  
  311,
  scale_exp( 
    minute(age($animation_datetime,"t_datetime")),
    0,60,
    100,0,
    0.2
  ),
  90
)

and this expression makes the point size shrink:

scale_exp( 
  minute(age($animation_datetime,"t_datetime")),
  0,60,
  24,0,
  0.2
)

Outlook

I’m currently preparing this and a couple of other examples for my Time Manager workshop at the upcoming 1st QGIS conference in Nødebo. The workshop materials will be made available online afterwards.

Literature

[1] Yu Zheng, Lizhu Zhang, Xing Xie, Wei-Ying Ma. Mining interesting locations and travel sequences from GPS trajectories. In Proceedings of International conference on World Wild Web (WWW 2009), Madrid Spain. ACM Press: 791-800.
[2] Yu Zheng, Quannan Li, Yukun Chen, Xing Xie, Wei-Ying Ma. Understanding Mobility Based on GPS Data. In Proceedings of ACM conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2008), Seoul, Korea. ACM Press: 312-321.
[3] Yu Zheng, Xing Xie, Wei-Ying Ma, GeoLife: A Collaborative Social Networking Service among User, location and trajectory. Invited paper, in IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin. 33, 2, 2010, pp. 32-40.


Time Manager 1.6 – now with feature interpolation

Over the last couple of weeks, Karolina has been very busy improving and expanding Time Manager. This post is to announce the 1.6 release of Time Manager which brings you many fixes and exciting new features.

Screenshot 2015-03-25 17.58.38

What’s this feature interpolation you’re talking about?

Interpolation is really helpful if you have multiple observations of the same (moving) real-world object at different points in time and you want to visualize the movement between the observations. This can be used to visualize animal paths, vehicle tracks, or any other movement in space.

The following example shows a simple layer which contains 12 point features (3 for each id value).

Screenshot 2015-03-25 17.50.55

Using Time Manager interpolation, it is easy to create animations with interpolated positions between observations:

animation

How is it done?

When you open the Time Manager 1.6 Settings | Add layer dialog, you will find a new option for interpolation settings. This first version supports linear interpolation of point features but more options might be added in the future. Note how the id attribute is specified to let Time Manager know which features belong to the same real-world object.

Screenshot 2015-03-25 17.43.08

For the interpolation, Time Manager creates a new layer which contains the interpolated features. You can see this layer in the layer list.

Screenshot 2015-03-25 17.46.13

I’m really looking forward to seeing all the great animations this feature will enable. Thanks Karolina for making this possible!


Exploring Mobility Data Using Time Manager

Data from various vehicles is collected for many purposes in cities worldwide. To get a feeling for just how much data is available, I created the following video using QGIS Time Manager which has been shown at the Austrian Museum of Applied Arts “MADE 4 YOU – Design for Change”. It shows one hour of taxi tracks in the city of Vienna:

If you like the video, please go to http://www.ertico.com/2012-its-video-competition-open-vote and vote for it in the category “Videos directed at the general public”.


Space-Time Cubes – Exploring Twitter Streams III

This post continues my quest of exploring the spatial dimension of Twitter streams. I wanted to try one of the classic spatio-temporal visualization methods: Space-time cubes where the vertical axis represents time while the other two map space. Like the two previous examples, this visualization is written in pyprocessing, a Python port of the popular processing environment.

This space-time cube shows twitter trajectories that contain at least one tweet in New York Times Square. The 24-hour day starts at the bottom of the cube and continues to the top. Trajectories are colored based on the time stamp of their start tweet.

Additionally, all trajectories are also drawn in context of the coastline (data: OpenStreetMap) on the bottom of the cube.

While there doesn’t seem to be much going on in the early morning hours, we can see quite a busy coming and going during the afternoon and evening. From the bunch of vertical lines over Times Square, we can also assume that some of our tweet authors spent a considerable time at and near Times Square.

I’ve also created an animated version. Again, I recommend to watch it in HD.


Adding Raster Layer Support to Time Manager

So far, Time Manager has been limited to vector layers. Support for raster layers has been on the wish list for quite a while. I’ve been considering different approaches and for now I have settled with one that keeps the way how raster layers work as close to the workings of vector layers as possible:

All layers have to be loaded before they can be added to Time Manager. The layers are added one-by-one and start and end time values are defined. (This differs from vector layers where start/end attribute are defined instead.) All raster layers that are not within the current time frame are set to 100 % transparency.

I’m not certain yet whether this is a good approach though. I’ll probably keep trying different approaches for a while.

This is a screen cast of the current status:

The plugin source is available on Github, as usual. It’s still going to take a while until there will be a plugin package including this feature.

I’m looking forward to reading your comments here or on Youtube. Do you think this approach is usable?


Nice Animations with Time Manager’s Offset Feature

You probably know this video from my previous post “Tweets to QGIS”. Today, I want to show you how it is done.

After importing the Twitter JSON file, I saved it as a Shapefile.
Every point in the Shapefile contains the timestamp of the tweet. Additionally, I added a second field called “forever” which will allow me to configure Time Manager to show features permanently.

A "forever" field will help with showing features permanently.

To create the flash effect you see in the video, we load the tweet Shapefile three times. Every layer gets a different role and style in the final animation:

  • Layer “start_flash” is a medium sized dot that marks the appearance of a new tweet.
  • Layer “big_flash” is a bigger dot of the same color which will appear after “start_flash”.
  • Layer “permanent” is a small dot that will be visible even after the flash vanishes.
Three layers with different styles will make the animation more interesting.

styling the tweet layers

We’ll plan the final animation with a time step size of 10 seconds. That means that every animation frame will cover a real-world timespan of 10 seconds.

We configure Time Manager by adding all three tweet layers:
Layer “start_flash” starts at the orginal time t. Layer “big_flash” gets an offset of -10 seconds, which means that it will display ten seconds after time t. Layer “permanent” gets an offset of -20 seconds and ends at time forever.

Layers can be timed using the "offset" feature.

Finally – in Time Manager dock – we can start the animation with a time step size of 10 seconds:

Use a time step size of 10 seconds so it fits to the offset values we specified earlier.

Besides watching the animation inside QGIS, Time Manager also enables you to export the animation to an image series using “Export Video” button. Actual video export is not implemented yet, but you can use mencoder on the resulting image series to create a video file:

mencoder "mf://*.PNG" -mf fps=10 -o output.avi -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

Time offsets are a new feature in version 0.4 of Time Manager. You can get it directly from the project SVN and soon from the official QGIS repo.


QGIS Time Manager Example: Visualizing Storm Data

Today, I’ve compiled a short video showcasing one of the possible uses of Time Manager plugin: Storm tracking. (Storm data can be downloaded from www.nhc.noaa.gov.)

Point size shows storm class, labels read maximum speed in mph.

If you are using Time Manager for your work, I’d love to hear about it.


WMS-T Support in Geoserver and Mapserver

“-T”, this small appendix can be found after many popular GIS-related acronym. But of course, it always means something different. Take for example GIS-T (GIS for Transportation), WFS-T (Transactional WFS) and WMS-T (WMS with time support). The world of acronyms is a fun place!

Let’s see what a WMS-T can do for us. From the WMS standard:

Some geographic information may be available at multiple times (for example, an hourly weather map). A WMS
may announce available times in its service metadata, and the GetMap operation includes a parameter for
requesting a particular time
. [...] Depending on the context, time
values may appear as a single value, a list of values, or an interval, …

Currently, only Mapserver supports WMS-T but the Geoserver team is working on it.

Mapserver

MapServer 4.4 and above provides support to interpret the TIME parameter and transform the resulting values into appropriate requests.

Time attributes are specified within the metadata section:

METADATA
"wms_title" "Earthquakes"
"wms_timeextent" "2011-06-01/2011-07-01"
"wms_timeitem" "TIME"
"wms_timedefault" "2011-06-10 12:10:00"
END

Mapserver supports temporal queries for single values, multiple values, single range values or even multiple range values:

...&TIME=2011-06-10&...
...&TIME=2011-06-10, 2004-10-13, 2011-06-19&...
...&TIME=2011-06-10/2011-06-13&...
...&TIME=2011-06-10/2011-06-15, 2011-06-20/2011-06-25&...

Geoserver

GeoSolutions has developed support for TIME and ELEVATION dimensions in WMS.
There are plans to backport this feature to the stable 2.1.x series after the 2.1.1 release.

Configuration of time-enabled layers can be done via the normal user interface:

The following video by GeoSolutions demonstrates the use of Geoserver’s WMS-T:

Both server solutions seem to support only one time attribute per layer. An optional second time attribute would be nice to support datasets with start and end time like Time Manager for QGIS does.


Time Manager 0.3 Released

We are pleased to announce the release of Time Manager version 0.3. New features include:

  • Saving – Time Manager settings are now being saved to the project file.
  • Image series export – animations can be exported as image series.
  • Help files – The plugin now comes with a user guide / help file.
  • Looping animations – When “looping” is enabled, the animation will start over from the beginning instead of stopping when it reaches the end.

Time Manager user guide

Time Manager is available through Geofrogger Repository. Give it a try!


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